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If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either checkmate (a loss for the player with no legal move) if the king is in check, or stalemate (a draw) if the king is not. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece(s) of either color (except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces).Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as castling.Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE), the game's international governing body.FIDE also awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of which is Grandmaster (GM).Moving is compulsory; it is illegal to skip a turn, even when having to move is detrimental.A player may not make any move that would put or leave the player's own king in check.
Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
The IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997.
The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concern about cheating during tournaments.
By convention, chess game pieces are divided into white and black sets.
Each set consists of 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns.