Esr dating in quaternary geology
Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by chemicals such as iron oxide, copper or manganese oxide, or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions.
Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover.
Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of anthropologically important Heidelberg and Tautavel bones has been made based on a model of uranium-series disequilibrium and a linear accumulation of uranium.
Theoretical equation and graphic solution are presented to obtain the age from the total dose of natural radiation (TD) derived from the result of ESR dating.
*A Stalactite *B Soda straws *C Stalagmites *D Coned stalagmite *E Stalagnate or column *F Drapery *G Drapery *H Helictites *I Moonmilk *J Sinter pool, rimstone *K Calcite crystals *L Sinter terrace *M Karst *N Body of water *O Shield *P Cave clouds *Q Cave pearls *R Tower cones *S Shelfstones *T Baldacchino canopy *U Bottlebrush stalactite *V Conulite *W Flowstone *X Trays *Y Calcite rafts *Z Cave popcorn or coralloids *AA Frostworks *AB Flowstone *AC Splattermite *AD Speleoseismites *AE Boxworks *AF Oriented stalactite *AG collapsed rubble Speleothems take various forms, depending on whether the water drips, seeps, condenses, flows, or ponds.
Many speleothems are named for their resemblance to man-made or natural objects.
The estimated average uplift rate of the hanging wall block is about 0.04 cm/year based on the age of the displaced Quaternary deposits (vertical separation; about 20 m) dated by OSL dating methods.
In order to test the consistency of ESR ages from a single fault gouge zone, we collected six gouge samples systematically along and across the Wangsan fault.
We found that six samples collected from the same gouge zone show consistent ESR date estimates (average 550 ka).
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